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J Electromagn Eng Sci > Volume 15(3); 2015 > Article
Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science 2015;15(3):142-150.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5515/JKIEES.2015.15.3.142   
Endonuclease G is Upregulated and Required in Testicular Germ Cell Apoptosis after Exposure to 60 Hz at 200 μT
Sungman Park1, Min-Woo Kim2, Ji-Hoon Kim1, Yena Lee1, Min Soo Kim1, Yong-Jun Lee1, Young-Jin Kim1, Hee-Sung Kim1, Yoon-Won Kim1
1Institute of Medical Science, School of Medicine, Hallym University
2Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hallym University
Abstract
Several reports supported that continuous exposure to 60 Hz magnetic field (MF) induces testicular germ cell apoptosis in vivo. We recently evaluated duration- and dose-dependent effects of continuous exposure to a 60 Hz MF on the testes in mice. BALB/c male mice were exposed to a 60 Hz MF at $100{mu}T$ for 24 hours a day for 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks, and at 2, 20 or $200{mu}T$ for 24 hours a day for 8 weeks. To induce the apoptosis of testicular germ cell in mice, the minimum dose is $20{mu}T$ at continuous exposure to a 60 Hz MF for 8 weeks, and the minimum duration is 6 weeks at continuous exposure of $100{mu}T$. Continuous exposure to a 60 Hz MF might affect duration- and dose-dependent biological processes including apoptotic cell death and spermatogenesis in the male reproductive system of mice. The safety guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) indicates that the permissible maximum magnetic flux density for general public exposure is $200{mu}T$ at 60 Hz EMF (ICNIRP Guidelines, 2010). In the present study, we aimed to examine the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes regulated by the continuous exposure to 60 Hz at $200{mu}T$ in Sprague-Dawley rats for 20 weeks. The continuous exposure to 60 Hz at $200{mu}T$ does not affect the body and testicular weight in rats. However, exposure to 60 Hz MF significantly affects testicular germ cell apoptosis and sperm count. Further, the apoptosis-related gene was scrutinized after exposure to 60 Hz at $200{mu}T$ for 20 weeks. We found that the message level of endonuclease G (EndoG) was greatly increased following the exposure to 60 Hz at $200{mu}T$ compared with sham control. These data suggested that 60 Hz magnetic field induced testicular germ cell apoptosis through mitochondrial protein Endo G.
Key words: 60 Hz Magnetic Field, Apoptosis, Endonuclease G, Reproductive Function, Testicular Germ Cell
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